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Ouchi, W. G. and A. M. Jaeger. 1978. Type Z organization: Stability in the midst of mobility. Academy of Management Review (April): 305- 314.

Note by James R. Martin, Ph.D., CMA
Professor Emeritus, University of South Florida

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This paper compares the dimensions of three organizational types to show how American organizations may evolve. These authors were very perceptive considering this paper was written in the late 1970's.

The Dimensions of Three Organizational Types
Dimension Type A - American Type J - Japanese Type Z - Modified American
Length of employment Short term - high employee turnover Lifetime - low employee turnover Long term - moderate employee turnover
Mode of Decision making Individual decisions Consensus decisions Consensus decisions
Type of Responsibility Individual based on merit Collective Individual
Speed of Evaluation and promotion Rapid Slow Slow
Dimension of control Explicit with formalized measures (Emphasis on bureaucratic type control) Implicit, informal and subtle (Emphasis on clan type control) Mixed implicit, informal control with explicit formalized measures
Degree of specialization Specialized career path. Bureaucratic control of individuals requires specialties and sub-specialties to reduce the interdependence Non specialized career path Moderately specialized career path
Extent of concern for the individual employee Segmented, non personal task oriented concern Holistic concern for employee's well being Holistic concern

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